Sunday, December 27, 2009

Halo Sunrise Ancestors 3

What’s still green: Arborvitae, juniper and other evergreens, Apache plume, a few roses, cholla, prickly pear, yuccas, Japanese honeysuckle, grape hyacinth, St. John’s wort, vinca, beardtongues, coral bells, rock rose, sea pink, pink and yellow evening primroses, purple aster, cheat grass, bases of needle and June grasses.

What’s grey, blue-grey or grey-green: Piñon, pinks, snow-in-summer, saltbush, winterfat.

What’s yellow: Weeping willow branches.

What’s blooming inside: Christmas cactus, aptenia, asparagus fern; rochea and Christmas cactus leaves tinged with red.

Animal sightings: Rabbit still taking the same path; tracks Friday from the road through the yucca bed, then along the house to the drive, and out to my neighbors.

Weather: Snow from Wednesday still covers the north and west facing beds; 8:26 hours of daylight today.

Weekly update: The most important ancestor of Ralph Moore’s Halo Sunrise is a hypothetical species called Rosa chinensis that was the original parent of the first roses imported from China. The first to arrive in England in 1759 and the first to appear in the genealogy is Parson’s Pink

Nothing that can be directly identified as Rosa chinensis has been found in the wild. In 1983, Mininoro Ogisu found stands of wild roses in southwestern Sichuan which many consider the closest we’ve come. However, when the seeds he collected were planted, they displayed variations one would expect from a hybrid, rather than a species. No one knows if Rosa chinensis spontanea is a feral hybrid or a natural one.

We do know the Chinese were cultivating roses from at least the Han dynasty (206 bc-220 ad), and that growers in the Song Dynasty (960-1279) found a way to save the recessive gene that allows roses to bloom more than once a season. A painting from that dynasty looks very much like Parson’s Pink.

The roses we know as China roses had already been crossbred with others species for fragrance and flower size. One, Rosa odorata, is only found in Yunnan. Another, Rosa odorata gigantea, varies in habit and flower where it grows in Yunnan, Myanmar, and adjacent parts of India, Thailand and Vietnam.

Guo Liang Wang believes roses began to move from the court to the general population during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). When Ogisu returned to Sichuan with Martyn Rix, they saw roses very like Parson’s Pink and Slater’s Crimson growing in a village near Ping-wu where feral chinensis spontanea roses flourished in the scrub covered hills.

By the time, the East India Company was sending back seeds back to England, often through the Calcutta botanical gardens run by William Roxburgh, roses had spread throughout the Chinese sphere of influence. The rose sent to France from La Réunion in 1823 by Edouard Perichon, that became the parent of the Bourbons, turned out to be a cross between the same Parson’s Pink and a damask

Chamberlain Hurst looked at chromosomes of “674 species, sub-species, varieties and hybrids” to discover most of the species had two sets of seven chromosomes, but that the old varieties cultivated in Europe had doubled that number to 28, while the newer varieties imported from China had 21.

When geneticists moved back beyond genealogies and history, they found evidence of even greater selection by man within the choices made by nature: six of the seven species that contributed to domesticated roses are closed related. When they looked wider still, at all roses, they realized almost all the species can be defined as one general group by their DNA. The exceptions are the hulthemia that interested Moore when he died and the roxburghii that began my quest.

Generations 9 to 13 of Halo Sunrise follow. Three of the roses Hurst’s defined as the progenitors of modern roses appear, Parson’s Pink, Clayton’s Crimson and Park’s Yellow.

Gen 9
Antoine Ducher - 1866 - Jean-Claude Ducher - hybrid perpetual
Seedling of Madame Domage
Château de Clos Vougeot - gen 7 - hybrid tea
Devoniensis - 1838 - Foster - tea
Smith’s Yellow China x Park’s Yellow Tea-Scented China
Fellenberg - 1835 - Philipp Emanuel von Fellenberg /
Fellemberg - noisette
François Michelon - 1871 - Antoine Levet (père)
hybrid perpetual
Seedling of La Reine
Gloire des Rosomanes - gen 7 (2x) - tea
Joseph Lowe - 1907 - Walter Bentley - hybrid tea
Sport of Mrs. W. J. Grant
Jules Margottin -1853 - Jacques-Julien, Jules Margottin Père &
Fils - hybrid perpetual
Seedling of La Reine
Kitchener of Khartoum - gen 7 - hybrid tea
La France - 1867 - Jean-Baptiste André (fils) Guillot
hybrid tea
Seedling of Madame Falcot
Lady Mary Fitzwilliam - gen 8 - hybrid tea
Liberty - gen 7 - hybrid tea
Madame Abel Chatenay - 1895 - Joseph Pernet-Ducher
hybrid tea
Victor Verdier x Docteur Grill
Madame Desprez - 1831 - Jean Desprez - Bourbon
Rose Édouard
Madame Hoste - 1887 - Jean-Baptiste André (fils) Guillot (or)
Pierre Guillot - tea
Seedling of Victor Pulliat
Madame Méha Sabatier - gen 7 - hybrid tea
Madame Norbert Levavasseur - gen 7 - polyantha
Mignonette - 1880 - Jean-Baptiste André (fils) Guillot
Seedling from
Seedlings of unspecified polyantha x unspecified tea rose
Mrs. Charles E. Russell - 1914 - Alexander Montgomery -
hybrid tea
Madame Caroline Testout
x (Madame Abel Chatenay x Marquise Litta)
Ophelia - gen 6 - hybrid tea
Ophirie - 1841 - Maurice Goubault - noisette
Orléans Rose - gen 8 - polyantha
Papa Gontier - 1883 - Gilbert Nabonnand - tea
Seedling of Duchess of Edinburgh
Park’s Yellow Tea-Scented China - 1824 - China
Possibly Rosa chinensis and Rosa odorata gigantea
Unknown Chinese breeders
John Damper Parks send from China, 1824
Richmond - gen 7 - hybrid tea
Rosa chinensis - gen 5 - species
Rosa foetida persiana - species
Middle east
Henry Willock introduce to England from Persia, late 1830's
Rosa multiflora - species
Eastern China, Japan, Korea
Carl Thunberg describe in Japan in 1784
Coignet send from Japan to Jean Sisley in Lyon, 1861
Sir Joseph Paxton - 1852 - Jean Laffay - Bourbon
Souvenir de la Reine d’Angleterre - 1855 - Scipion Cochet -
hybrid perpetual
La Reine x Seedling
Souvenir de Victor Hugo - 1884 - Bonnaire - tea
Comtesse de Labarthe x Regulus
Triomphe de l'Exposition - 1855 - hybrid perpetual
Jacques-Julien, Jules Margottin Père & Fils
Victor Verdier - 1859 - François Lacharme - hybrid perpetual
Jules Margottin x Safrano
Gen 10
Comtesse de Labarthe - 1857 - H.B. (or possibly H. Pierre)
Bernède - tea
Unknown, possibly Caroline
Docteur Grill - gen 8 - tea
Duchess of Edinburgh - before 1874 - Monsieur A. Dunant
hybrid perpetual
Marguerite de St.-Amand x Baronne Adolphe de Rothschild
Jules Margottin - gen 9 - hybrid perpetual
La Reine - 1842 - Jean Laffay (3x) - hybrid perpetual
Seedling of William Jesse
Madame Abel Chatenay - gen 9 - hybrid tea
Madame Caroline Testout - gen 7 - hybrid tea
Madame Falcot - 1858 - Jean-Baptiste André (fils) Guillot - tea
Seedling of Safrano
Madame Domage - 1853 - Jacques-Julien, Jules Margottin Père
& Fils - hybrid perpetual
Marquise Litta - 1893 - Joseph Pernet-Ducher - hybrid tea
Mrs. W. J. Grant - gen 8 - hybrid tea
Regulus - by 1811 - Gallica
Claude-Thomas Guerrapain describe, 1811
Park’s Yellow Tea-Scented China - gen 9 - tea
Rose Édouard - 1823 - Bourbon
Parson’s Pink x Quatre Saisons
Edouard Perichon discover in La Réunion
Probably came through India
Released in France, 1823
Rosa Foetida - gen 7 - species
Rosa odorata gigantea - gen 5 - species
Safrano - gen 8 - tea
Smith’s Yellow China - 1829 - W. Smith - tea
Blush Noisette x Parks' Yellow Tea-scented China
Victor Pulliat - 1870 - Jean-Claude Ducher - tea
Seedling of Madame Mélanie Willermoz
Victor Verdier - gen 9 - hybrid perpetual
Gen 11
Baronne Adolphe de Rothschild - gen 8 - hybrid perpetual
Blush Noisette - 1814 - Philippe Noisette - noisette
Seedling of Champneys' Pink Cluster
Caroline - 1833 - Modeste Guérin (Angers) - tea
Madame Mélanie Willermoz - 1845 - François Lacharme - tea
Marguerite de St.-Amand -1864 - Arthur De Sansal -
hybrid perpetual
Parson’s Pink - 1752 - China
Genes of Rosa odorata gigantea and Slater’s Crimson
Unknown Chinese breeders
Sent to John Parsons in England, 1759
Quatre Saisons - first reported in Europe, 1622 - damask
(Rosa moschata x Rosa gallica) x Rosa fedtschenkoana
Safrano - gen 8 - tea
William Jesse - 1838 - Jean Laffay - hybrid perpetual
Gen 12
Champneys' Pink Cluster - c.1811 - John Champneys - noisette
Parson’s Pink x Rosa moschata
Slater’s Crimson - gen 8 - species
Rosa fedtschenkoana - species
Xinjiang, Kazakhstan
Introduced to Russia from Turkistan by Alexei and Olga
Fedtschenko c. 1871
Rosa gallica - species
Central, southern Europe, Turkey and Caucasus
Count Thibault IV of Champagne bring from Jerusalem,
Rosa moschata - species
Logical name for parents of Mediterranean musk rose
Nothing found in nature
Suspected to come from Himalayas
Mediterranean Europe
Crispijn van de Passe describe, 1614
Rosa odorata gigantea - gen 5 - species
Gen 13
Parson’s Pink - gen 11 - tea
Rosa moschata - gen 12 - species

Notes: Ancestries mostly drawn from the website and Botanica’s Roses, 2000.

Hurst, C. C. “Genetics of the Rose,” The Rose Annual 1929.

Matsumoto, S., M. Kouchi, J. Yabuki, M. Kusunoki, Y. Ueda and H. Fukui “Phylogenetic Analyses of the Genus Rosa Using the Matk Sequence: Molecular Evidence for the Narrow Genetic Background of Modern Roses,” Scientia Horticulturae 77:73-82:1998.

Rix, Martyn. 'China Roses,' Historic Rose Journal, Spring 1999.

Wang, Guoliang. “A Study on the History of Chinese Roses from Ancient Works and Images,” Acta Horticulturae 751:347-356:2007.

Photograph: Rosa rugosa, the only Eurasian species to grow in my yard, has hips and thorns; 26 December 2009.

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